From Tealeaf to Teacup, Tea stories

A Cup Full of Stories

By Lizane  Louw

Finger Tea Story House Tea Plantation. Mingjing Township, Nantou. A woman is handpicking Oolong Tea on the plantation, 480 m above sea level in Mingjing, the tea village.
Photo Lizane Louw

I crossed Taiwan in search of tea stories. On one of my journeys, we took a road trip into the mountains of Nantou to explore a unique tea village where the smell of freshly baked Oolong Tea hangs thick in the air. We stomped barefoot in fresh mud and got lost in tiny teapots with tea masters. That night when we went to bed in the round red capsule house on the tea plantation, the moon turned into a teacup.

Impossible? But this is a true story.

This story starts with a question I often get asked, “Why do you travel?”

So, with this story, I will try and explain why I travel and why I have been travelling for over 25 years. The short answer is, that I travel to find myself. Not finding my identity, not finding out who I am, but finding myself in interesting situations. I travel to find…

I travel to find out what I like and what I don’t like. I travel to eat, taste, smell, drink tea (and coffee and wine), and travel to see and photograph. I travel to learn.

Getting older and wiser, with a lot of air miles and sea miles behind my back, I can look back and reflect on what journeys were most memorable, and what experiences I gravitate too. One thin line that is woven through all my experiences in life, is my love for tea.

I am learning to look and then to see with my journeys with tea. With tea, time stops; I am a student of the tealeaf. I am learning the Cha Dao.

My leaf adventures took me to The Finger Tea Story House in Taiwan. This story house is located on Song Bo Ling, Ming Jian Shang in Nantou County. The journey to the story house takes you on a 45 min high-speed train ride from Taoyuan to Taichung.

You have to patiently travel another hour or so on a scenic route into the mountains of Nantou. This road trip into the mountains took me past yam, pineapple and dragon fruit plantations. They also grow ginger in the region. In addition, this part of the island produces some of the best Oolong Tea in the world.

Finger Tea Story House Tea Plantation is in Mingjing Township, Nantou, central Taiwan. The HRS, High-Speed Rail, jets down to Taichung from Taoyuan in 45 min. You can travel to Mingjing with the Scenic JiJi train or drive from Changhua. Source: Rome to Rio.

Finger Tea Story House Tea Plantation. Mingjing Township, Nantou. A woman is handpicking Oolong Tea on the plantation. Handpicked tea is much more expensive than machine-harvested tea. Photo Lizane Louw

“Two Fingers” and tea stories

Mingjing is where the history of tea starts in Taiwan; these plantations are the origin of Taiwan’s tea.

The Finger Tea Story House is 480 m above sea level. Mingjang has over 2000 hectares of tea plantations, and it is also the area with the most significant output of tea production in central Taiwan. The region produces four types of tea. Four Season Tea, Golden Daylily Tea, Green Jade Tea and Oolong Tea. For the Oolong tea, I travelled 200 km to the heart of the tea valley.

In the Finger Tea Story  House, I discovered another legend of teas. “Shen Nong Shi (The Emperor of Five Grains) sampled one hundred kinds of grass and was poisoned by 72 of them daily. He had a pair of ox-like horns and a transparent, crystal clear, ox-like belly. One day whilst sampling one hundred kinds of grass, some poisonous grass poisoned him. His crystal belly turned black, and he became ill. He randomly picked a leaf from a surrounding plant and ate it. The tealeaf was moving up and down in his turbid, black belly, and his belly turned transparent, crystal clear once more. Shen Nong was curious about this leaf that did the magic to his belly. He discovered that it was the “tea leaf”.

Since that discovery, it was believed that the tealeaf had a detoxification effect; this belief passed from generation to generation.

Yang Kuo-Chen started the Finger Tea Story House in 2013. But the tea tradition of this family runs over a hundred years. “The history of the family is about four generations. The second generation had their teashop under the Japanese occupation, “explains Yating Yang as she walked us through the Tea Museum.

“When he was eight years old, the owner, Yang Kuo-Chen, was making tea with his granddad, and by accident, he lost two fingers; two fingers got cut off by a rolling machine. So our story house here we named “Two-finger Tea” because of the story were lost his two fingers.”

Yang lost half his ring finger and middle finger in that accident. However, his accident did not keep him from loving tea; it inspired more challenging work and an expansion of their brands into “The Finger Tea Story House”.

“There is a statue of his hand; you will have good luck if you rub it or touch it. “

祝好运

Zhù hǎo yùn” explained Yating, our story guide. She is very professional and carefully chooses her English words. Now and then, she uses Google translate to help with her English. I stopped, rubbed the statue with two missing fingers, and wished to have more luck.

The story house started as a tiny business. Today is 100 years old. First, Chang Sung Tea expanded into other labels and the bubble tea business. Then, two very famous Taiwanese brands, Tea Top and Tea Struck. Tea Top is a household bubble tea brand, not only in Taiwan, where they have 120 shops but also in the US, where they have ten shops.

As we walked through the museum, I got lessons on the tea plant and tea leaves and various teas. Finally, we stopped at Pu’er Tea. Pu’er tea is a fermented black tea from a village named Pu’er in China. I am the proud owner of a brick of aged 13-year-old Pu’er from Yunnan, China. The young tea master was very impressed with my knowledge.

This story house and farm have old tea distinguished from Pu’er Tea, and they have 40-year-old tea for sale. These teas are costly collectors’ items.

The Finger Tea Story House brands have won many competitions. Nantou has the best tea in Taiwan, and the brand wins 20 categories in the biggest tea competitions in Nantou every year. Their winter and spring tea won first place in tea competitions 25 times. They are seen as the tea champions. All the teas planted and harvested by Finger Tea are organic.

Finger Tea Story House Tea Plantation. Mingjing Township, Nantou. A woman is handpicking Oolong Tea on the plantation. Photo Lizane Louw

The Healing Leaf

“Tea is good for your health and good for your teeth. Tea has fluoride, which is why it is good for your teeth. The tea plants absorb the fluoride from the soil, so tea has a high percentage of fluoride. But it can make your teeth yellow,” Yating explains.

“Grandpa used to say that you don’t have to brush your teeth; you can just drink tea. You can just swizzle the tea in your mouth. Then, you rinse your mouth with tea brewing water.

Tea also contains anti-oxidant actives such as polyphenols and catechin, which inhibit the growth of bacteria and viruses. Therefore, it can prevent you from being unwell,” with those words, I realized that I was speaking to a family member; she smiled as I asked if Mr Yang Kuo-Chen was her grandfather. With that smile, she became more relaxed in her family history presentation.

My thoughts on tea continued as we walked; I thought of the health benefits and what I had read. Nutrients in tea transform into a large quantity of Gallic Acid that can stimulate dopamine secretion. Dopamine can stabilize emotion.

Oolong Tea Plantation. Mingjing Township, Nantou. Photo Lizane Louw


Yating’s grandfather performed fortune-telling with tea. He believed that a magnetic field every man. When that magnetic field turns weak, drinking tea can supplement it and turn it back to its fullness. According to the stories retold to children in this family, you can also change your fortune from bad to good.

You have to drink tea according to your age. An extensive chart on the wall shows what tea you drink at what age. For example, I am 40, so I need to drink High Mountain Oolong tea. “When you are in your 20’s and 30’s, you can’t drink high mountain oolong tea. You must wait till you are older, and then when you are in your 40’s, and you drink High Mountain Oolong tea, and then you come back to lower-level teas, it does not taste good,” says Yating, who I now have figured out is the owner’s daughter. She shares tea stories as we walk through the museum.

Tea Chai Cha

I have travelled the world for tea. I had Masala Chai in India; it is a black tea with milk, sugar and spices. I had Darjeeling tea in India, this tea is grown in West Bengal, and you also drink it without milk.

 I learned to drink Chamomile tea in early evening teas in Paris, France, Chamomile, herbal tea infusion. (Even though I am still not sure if Chamomile originally comes from France). I had 50-year-old Pu’er Chinese tea in my favourite teashop in Yinge and had 40-year-old tea in a tiny village called Mingjing, the tea heaven of Taiwan.

I have always wondered why they would call tea by different names, then finally, with reading up, a whole world opened. If you get your tea by sea, it is called  “tea”; if you get your tea from the land, it is called “cha”. 

So I finally figured out that my favourite teas, Masala Chai and High Mountain Oolong Cha, are both from the land, which means that these teas are grown locally and distributed by land, and I was lucky to drink some of the best-handpicked teas in the world. So, the langue then indicates where we get our tea. If you get your tea by see it is tea, thee, te or tee. If you get it by land, it is chai, chay or cha.

Tea by sea and tea by land. Source: Quarts.

Old leaves and a young leave

Most regular Oolong tea is harvested by machine, but High Mountain Oolong Tea is harvested by hand. When tea is harvested by hand, it is more expensive.

“When you harvest tea, you have to harvest them young. The very first leaves have to be harvested. The smell is so natural earthy; it is delicious, still pure, and has not been exposed to the elements and gives the best quality teas,” explained Yating.

The Story House’s “Tea Theory to Relativity” is explained via comics on the Story House Tea Museum walls. Each picture is drawn in a comic cartoon style. It is translated into English on a pamphlet I got given.

“The most interesting is distinguishing between an old leaf and a young leaf. The old leaf is likened to an old man taking a piss, but the pee dripping downwards to his shoes. A new leaf is likened to a young kid taking a pee and projecting across a stream. In Taiwanese, this means a new leaf has more strengths and is better.” I laugh out loud. Sometimes the forwardness of this culture surprises me.

We continue to the tea making process. “Oolong tea making requires several steps. First, you pluck, then outdoors; the outdoor withering takes place, then indoor withering, they stir dry the tea leaves, roll the tealeaves, grade the tea leaves, and then grade sample the tealeaves. This process was manually conducted, nowadays, the tea process is mechanized; the output is more tea and the process much faster,” Yating continued.

“Green tee, oolong tea and black tea come from the same plant. From the same plant, you can make all three kinds of tea. It is the same plant, Camellia Sinensis,” she explained.

The distinction between these different teas is not from other plants but how the leaves are treated after being harvested. “It also depends on the fermentation process.”

I was shocked to learn that all teas come from the same plant. My story went full circle back to my teacup.

Mingjing Township, Nantou. Handpicked Oolong tea is placed on tarps. After tea leaves are plucked, they start to wilt; naturally, steady withering takes place when these oolong teas are placed on tarps with black nets controlling the sun they get. Photo Lizane Louw

A teacup full of stories

The story goes that the great-grandpa told his 8-year-old son about the finger-cutting machine that rolled off his fingers. “How lucky you are, my dear grandson, that you were not using your genitals to weigh the iron chains”. We laughed and had another GongFu ceremony.

 So many stories. This is an actual story house.

I have tasted a variety of teas in the village, sat down with two teamsters and learned about tea.

Visiting the story house was a mind-altering experience. I am learning more about this leaf. I learned so much about tea, tea production, and stories about tea and the MingJing plantations. Again, I found a world of tea stories at the bottom of my teacup.

As we sat around the fire in the tea plantation in front of our round tubular room, I smelled the fresh Oolong Tea plantations. The smells were thick in the air, pineapple, peach and guava. I looked up at the sky and what I saw made me smile. The bright white moon turned into a teacup.

I am a student of the tealeaf. My journey is to learn the Cha Dao.

     From tea leaf to teacup. Source: LiveInTheNow.com

                      

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Bubble Tea and The Fat Straw

Straw alternatives, metal straws

08/12/2018. Taipei, Taiwan. Quan Chang Co. in Taipei manufactures eco-friendly stainless steel straws. These straws are natural alternatives to the multicoloured plastic fat straws traditionally used to drink the trendy bubble tea drink in Taiwan.

Bboba nai cha

No tea story will be complete without writing about bubble tea.

Originally, bubble tea was an iced tea drink that contained a particular ingredient, tapioca pearls, at the bottom of the drink. Today, this drink is not always served as iced tea; it can have fruity notes and real fruit as ingredients. This tea or fruit infusion tea today has many varieties and flavours. This trendy tea drink, wildly popular in Taiwan and, in fact, all over Asia, was traditionally made with tapioca pearls and iced tea, hence the name bubble tea. This drink goes by many names, the most popular, Bboba tea, pearl tea or boba nai cha.

The name bubble tea comes from the tapioca bubbles or pearls at the bottom of the drink and the way this delicious milk tea beverage is prepared. The vigorous shaking of the milk in the preparation process also leaves bubbles and foam at the top of the tea drink. Hence the name, bubble tea.

There are many disputed origins of this trendy Taiwanese beverage. The most famous story is that Bboba nai cha originated in Taichung. However, the story goes that Liu Han Chie of the very renowned Chun Shui Tang Teahouse claims that he invented this drink back in the 80s.  Whilst travelling in Japan, Chie was inspired by Japanese iced beverages. So, when he arrived back home, he experimented with cold milk tea by adding various fruit, sweeteners and tapioca pearls.

The rest, they say, is history. This trendy ice drink’s popularity spread worldwide, and you can find this delicious, refreshing ice tea or iced fruit drink with tapioca pearls in coffee shops and juice bars in most countries.

Apart from this tea drink traditionally served in a transparent plastic “glass” so that the consumer can see the tapioca pearls, it is served with a noticeably thicker and fatter, more colourful straw. This is so that you can slurp up the tapioca pearls and chew these as your drink your sweet iced tea. These pearls are chewy and soft jelly balls. They glide up the straw as you drink your tea.

These fat straws are also causing a big stir in Taiwan; this is reported in the media; the whole bubble tea tradition is being challenged by the Taiwan Government’s crackdown on plastic.


I searched for the best bubble tea in Taiwan and landed at Chun Shui Tang, the teashop famous for inventing bubble tea. I visited their most highly recommended teashop in Xinyi District, Taipei City. This famous shopping district is also home to Taipei 101. A landmark building with 101 floors that was once the world’s tallest skyscraper.

When I visited the shop in Taipei, I had to wait for about 25 minutes to have a seat. When I looked at the English Chinese Menu that patrons get, the first line and item on the menu read, “The Creator of Pearl Milk Tea”. There was a tiny bubble tea symbol, two different sizes and “iced” or “hot drink” next to this menu item. Even though I wasn’t in the original shop in Taichung, a city more south, I realized that I was about to taste one of the most famous tea drinks on our tiny blue planet, made the way it was traditionally made in the 80s.

The rest of the menu looked appetizing, too; apart from the variety of tea drinks, like Sesame Milk Tea, Jasmine Milk Tea, and Pearl Jasmine Tea, something else caught this wannabe tea connoisseur’s eyes. Oolong Beancurd with Bonito Flakes. In short, Tofu and tea. My two favourite tastes combined. Heaven.

08/12/2018. The world-famous “The Creator of the Pearl Milk Tea” as this tea is named on the menu of Chun Shui Tang. Pearl Milk Tea and a very fat straw. Photo Lizane Louw

The Fat Straw

I had many varieties of bubble tea in my four years living in Taiwan. Back in 2002, when I visited for the first time and also now, I also enjoyed the more modern, trendy versions of this milky tea beverage. On visits to the street stalls and night markets, I noticed how much plastic gets used for packaging food.

When I go to a regular bubble tea shop, I will get the tea in a plastic “glass”, usually thin and see-through, and there would be a plastic top lid with the now infamous but much-beloved fat straw.

I became very aware of the waste I produce every day after a documentary I shot on plastic pollution with TEIA (Taiwan Environmental Information Association). I am, as a result, consciously reducing my plastic consumption, limiting the harm I cause to the environment.

The government of Taiwan also acknowledged the calls from so many environmental campaigns regarding plastic pollution and marine debris. Consequently, the government is taking a very firm stance on plastic.

In June last year, the EPA’s restrictions on plastic straws were introduced. A notice was posted on the EPA’s website, an excerpt from the Environmental Policy Monthly, dated June 2016.

According to the notice, due to the growing urgency to address marine plastic pollution, the EPA has drafted the restrictions on single-use plastic straws. The draft stipulates that the following four businesses will be prohibited from providing single-use straws for customers dining in-store: public sector entities, public and private schools, department stores, and shopping malls. This ban will affect 8,000 businesses.

Taiwan’s beloved sweet milky tapioca pearl drinks will be affected by this ban. Since this notice, the internet has ignited protests, and the debate is continuing. The main question is, “how will we drink bubble tea without a straw?”

Since the announcement of the EPA’s preannounced restriction on plastic straws, the milk tea industry and all lovers of the famous Bboba nai cha, or bubble tea, are discussing it. The conversation on the ban reached all street corners of Taiwan and all the tiny street alleys of all villages and cities.

In the press over the past couple of months, various stories have reported on this bubble tea frenzy online.  According to many reports, the Taiwanese can’t imagine not having their favourite drink without a straw.

Plastic straws are single-use plastic items that are not recycled. As a result, these plastic utensils are one of the most harmful trash pieces in our oceans.

“After plastic straws are used, they are discarded in the environment where they break down into small plastic pieces or are ingested by animals. According to the EPA website, the ingested plastic can absorb toxins in the environment and then accumulate and be consumed by animals higher up in the food chain.”

“However, the EPA urges businesses to take early action by not providing plastic straws unless customers request them. The public is also encouraged to prepare their reusable straws to reduce plastic pollution and waste of resources.”

Marine Waste Cleanup Statistics

Taiwan Environmental Information Organization (TEIA) released its 2017 Marine Waste Clean-up (International Coastal Cleanup) statistics earlier. The data presented reflected those straws were among the top three marine debris found by various organizations doing marine waste monitoring operations. The total number of straws found in monitored areas where 23,113. These monitoring operations are done in small square blocks on beaches and do not span the entire monitored coast. This proves again that there is a growing problem with plastic, specifically straws ending up as marine debris on the beaches of Taiwan.

Marine waste monitoring operations collected data from September 2017 – to October 2017. Source: TEIA.

According to the data collected in the 2017 Marine Waste Clean-up, the Top 5 marine debris:

  1. Plastic bottles – 49,305 pieces
  2. Plastic caps – 32,347 pieces
  3. Straws – 23,113 pieces
  4. Glass bottles – 17,321 pieces
  5. Plastic bags – 16,436 pieces

Alternatives to Plastic Straws

Quan Chang Co. in Taipei is an environmentally conscious company that has offered an alternative to plastic straws. Instead, the company manufactures eco-friendly stainless steel straws.

08/12/2018. Taipei, Taiwan. On display at the Quan Chang shop, there are a variety of eco-friendly stainless steel straws. Apart from the stainless steel straws, glass straws are also on display. Photo Lizane Louw

I visited the shop in Taipei to learn more about these eco-products and buy some of their products that came highly recommended as alternatives to the straws that would be banned in June/ July 2019.

“I made a bunch of straws. They are going back to America, “says Ocean Chang, owner of Quan Chang.

As it is known, QC is a Taiwanese brand that cares for the environment and cares for our health, a handout of the products proclaim. “In fact, for the health of the people, for the health of the environment,” answers Chang to the question of the company’s vision.

On this handout, neatly illustrated and explained are examples of 19 straws. Then, in extensive, bold letters, “ARE YOU STILL USING TOXIC STRAWS?”

“It is a straightforward idea. It is to be good to oneself, be good to others and the environment, and do a kind thing at the same time,” he said.

The whole shop is “green”. I scan the shop again as we speak. I look at the tiny GongFu tea set neatly arranged in the middle of the heavy wooden table. I am seated on a big wooden stump, balancing myself in the middle of the rings of the chopped tree. Everything smells like earth. There is soft Buddhist chanting playing in the background. We drink honey water out of see-through recycled glasses with yellow rims, and I had my first experience with a glass straw. We eat fruit out of wooden bowls with stainless steel utensils, and we drink more tea as we exchange ideas, him not speaking any English and me with my 200 words Chinese vocabulary. We communicate with the assistance of a translation device.

“Some people will change and buy these alternatives, but the others will probably still use the public straw, says Ocean’s wife, Nancy Chen.

“People are upset because they don’t want to make this change; it is seen as an “inconvenience.”

“It is difficult to change people’s habits,” Ocean adds, “But this is a product of environmental protection that can change people’s habits. Then we need more people to be green to spread the word and educate people,” he said with passion.

Ocean is sitting across from me, speaking Chinese into this small translation device. I have never seen anything like this, and I am rather impressed at how we manage to communicate, me speaking into this tiny little machine in English and my words immediately translated into Chinese. Ocean listens with attention to my questions and answers again in Chinese.

“Plastic straws are toxic. So people need to buy alternative options like stainless steel. Habits that are focused on environmental protection are needed.”

“But how do you get people to choose green straws,” he asked. “We must continue to create these kinds of green products, products that are good for the environment.”

Three people enter through the door. Our conversation is cut short. They are welcomed like family.

The lady close to me starts a conversation in perfect English.

“We came here, especially for the straws. I work in the environmental administration department with this idea or policy to ban plastic straws. It is challenging, as the Taiwanese love bubble tea. The problem is that the policy did not introduce a replacement for the straws. Instead, one official saying we can eat with spoons, “said Jeanne Wei, Environmental Protection Administration System Analyst, Department of Environmental Monitoring and Information Management.

Department of Waste Management specialist Lee Yi-Hua said, as reported by the media in Taiwan, “people could use a spoon instead of a straw” these words have caused a massive outlash by netizens and the public alike. This is also now the topic in the shop.

Wei was visiting QC with family members, and all of them were making investments for the environment. Her brother Charlie bought a couple of straws to take back to the US.

“In Taiwan, drinking bubble tea is a cultural tradition. So people are not happy about the straws ban,” affirmed Wei.

From the ongoing debates, it is clear that public opinion is against the ban on straws.

There is a lot of waste on the beaches, and as the data of environmental efforts have shown, many straws are found as marine debris. So the problem is shown in the data and on the beaches and in the trash bags collected.

“The proposal was disapproved by many people”, according to Wei, “it is a difficult situation to implement this ban.”

Taiwan is currently nr 3 in the world in recycling; a country is a well-oiled machine for reducing, reusing and recycling. “The global ban for using plastic bags, Taiwan was very early to implement that. We did pretty well. When I went to New York, I realized that our plastic bags are thicker than those used in the west. I know that people in the west use a lot of plastic bags, with no restraints, but in Taiwan, we have to pay to use them; this helps people be more conscious about using plastic bags; I think this is a good thing “Wei said.

On banning plastic straws, she said it depends on education too. “If we can teach children, it can help.  We have to start from the young; this year, I also heard stories about how young people influenced their parents to vote in the referendums.” According to Wei, banning straws is a new idea. “We need to educate children on the uses of plastic and other options to take care of the environment. This is a very new thing; people need to be educated.”

Jeanne and her family left after discussing plastic pollution, environmental protection and tea. Ocean cut more fruit, and we drink more tea.

“Every country has environmental groups. We must be united to be strong. This “green” straw is very durable and of good quality. You will save a lot of money relative to buying and paying for plastic straws. In the end, this will also help the environment. This is much better for your health too.

But the quality has to be good for it to have this value. So if the quality is not good, then it is not a good product and utensil, “he continues.

According to Chang, there are many people out there who are willing to invest in good quality utensils that are eco products; these straws are good quality and good for the environment.

“Environmental education and education about these Eco eating utensils are critical if we want to protect our environment for the next generation,” says Chang. He looks over at his daughter sitting in his wife’s lap.

I noticed a tear running down his cheek, and he sniffed and wiped his nose. At that moment, I realize that I am speaking to a very passionate man about his work with the environment and that he is speaking into this small translating device with his whole heart.

I saw his heart, and I felt his concern in his expression and words.

“Plastic cause a lot of environmental problems”, he said with a heavy heart.

08/12/2018. Taoyuan. I invested in a whole set of environmentally friendly eco products, wooden chopsticks, spoons, and two groups of stainless steel straws. One special straw from their collections was a gift. This small gift, Ocean said, was a thank you for what I also contributed to protecting our environment. Photo Lizane Louw
 
 

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The Tao of Tea

A Story About a Taiwanese Tea Master and Gongfu Cha

By Lizane Louw

Taipei, Taiwan. Mrs Chang Wen-Hsin, owner and tea master at Ten Shang’s Tea Co in Taipei, serving High Mountain Oolong Tea in a traditional GongFu tea ceremony. Photo Lizane Louw

Taiwanese tea master, Chang Wen-Hshin, was born in Nantou county in a small rural village Mingjian. This area is the most beautiful mountainous area in Taiwan. It is an area that is humid and dense with rainforest trees. The luscious green trees and plants line the mountains. Nantou is also home to Sun Moon Lake. Mrs Chang grew up in a tea village and shares her Gongfu with those who visit Ten Shang Tea shop in Jilin Road, Taipei.

Mrs Chang was born in the mountains. Mingjian is a village where they now grow high mountain tea. This method of tea, High Mountain Oolong tea, was only developed 30 years 40 years ago. So when she was a child, the tea was not that high in the mountains. Minjiang is a place where they grow tea, make tea, bake tea, and sell tea. They sell their tea, not in shops, but in a local way; it is a local area. This Taiwanese tea master grew up in an area that is famous not only for tea but for agriculture, fresh air and tea.

Tea Dairies, a series of tea stories written by journalist Lizane Louw

The first cup of tea for a tea master

“I had my first cup when I was in my mom’s belly,” Mrs Chang says. Her mother also loved tea, and that is how she got introduced to tea. Before she was even born. Mrs Chang is the 4th generation of family tea farmers that grow and sell tea.

Mrs Chang brews our first cup of tea while talking, and I take the aroma cup to my nose. I smell peaches, jasmine and an infusion of mixed fruit, and a bouquet. I looked up at her, and she smiles and says “You can smell things that you are familiar with. Everything is connected to things that you are familiar with. When she smells the tea, she says she smells her hometown, fresh fruits and flowers.”

For Mrs Chang, tea is about the tea ritual, the brewing steps and what effort she puts in the tea; it is a complete experience, how to do it, the entire ceremony.

Knowlege in a cup

“First, people know about tea from what they smell and what they taste; as times goes, they will learn about different levels in the tea.”

“The body reacts, but so does the mind: the smelling and tasting release stress. The way you brew tea is how your mind and body calms down. But, there is something deeper in tea. These are old traditions; it is an ancient tradition.”

Life in a tea village in Taiwan

“When she was a village child, people knew that tea was good for health. But, back in those days, it wasn’t easy to get an education,” she recounts. “Everyone knew and understood the benefits of drinking tea, but they did not know the reason. They did not know why it was good. But they knew it was good.”

“Today, there is a lot of research being done,” Megan, Mrs Chang’s daughter that is translating her mom’s words, continues. “And there is more knowledge available, so they are also learning now.” Mrs Chang smiles, and I notice her excellent posture as she sits behind the tea table, brewing tea. “She is learning how important tea is, and she is thrilled to share the knowledge passed on from generation to generation from her home village,” Megan says.

Mrs Chang recalls her upbringing in the mountains and says long before her mother’s generation; they had this traditional way of making tea. The whole family was growing tea. Her father and the older generations sold tea to the big cities. And as people got more and more educated, they shared their products and knowledge.

She grew up in a big family, one of eight children.

Organic tea

During the 1970s and1980s, Taiwan’s economy got better. During that time, the family was thinking about doing their own tea business and thought about selling tea and teaching people their unique tea concept.

People are drawn to scented teas, tea with rose, tea with jasmine, tea with fruits, some people prefer natural teas. “Natural teas, you can taste and smell and feel,” Mrs Chang says. “They sell pure tea, it is from a certain altitude, and they don’t combine different teas or balanced tea like other countries, for example, black teas, they will mix black teas.”

Meagan explains the story of tea with teas that I know, “like Early grey, they balance the Indian, and black tea. This is mass production; they want to balance the flavours continually. But our tea, this tea has a special character, maybe next season the tea will be different. This is because of the climate, weather, the temperature, the amount is limited.”

“That is our organic tea, that is natural. So you never get the same tea twice,” Mrs Chang continues.

The tea business

In the background, Mr Chang is helping customers buying tea and talking on his phone. He also measures tea from giant ceramic teapots, moving through the shop with a big smile, now and then adding a Chinese expression to our lively conversations around tiny glass teapots and a PinMing tea set.

Mrs Chang’s parents didn’t share their knowledge of tea in an academic way with books. “They transferred their knowledge through experience and practice, not the knowledge from the textbook, but by their experience and traditions. “They were too young to understand everything; most knowledge was gained with trial and error. So they learned from experience and experimented.”

All the teas in the shop come from plantations in the region where she grew up, a wide variety of exotic teas. The tea does not only come from the land they own but also other family members. From the Alishan Mountain region and Shanming Shi. “We grow our tea in our lands but also co-operate with local farmers and sometimes with relatives,” Mrs Chang explains. “We go back to the tea fields to check the quality; Mr Shang usually does the quality control. He is very knowledgeable on the topic, and he is susceptible to the quality of tea.”

A love story in a tea shop

Her daughter that is translating for her tells the story of how her parents met. The Taiwanese tea master sits behind the big wooden tea table and smiles at her daughter. Megan is an art teacher and shares the story of how her parents met. “My mother used to work in her uncle’s teashop; it had the same name, Ten Shang’s Tea. She was 16 when she came to Taipei to work in the teahouse or teashop. She started to run this teashop when she was 20. My father was from Kaohsiung, he was working with my uncle, and he was working as a salesman.”

“It was in Ten Shang’s teashop where they met. My father was the salesman; my mother was the top saleslady. There were different branches called flash shops in these department stores. Every season these shops were re-arranged, and she, my mom, could choose where she wanted to work.”

A family tradition

Mrs Chang smiles knowingly as she listens to her daughters perfect English. “She is very proud of this history. Ten Shang’s was started by my uncle and my uncle’s wife and her family and another uncle; they all had teashops. So we were five or six families working together.”

Mrs Chang pulled out an old tea book on the history of tea in a bookshelf next to the tea table and showed me a page. “There was an old advertisement placed by a family member in this decades-old tea book. The advertisement stands out from the others on the page look. The full advertisement is an illustration of a tea leaf, with the renowned red teapot logo at the top.”

This family has been making tea for decades, and Mr Chang says that their traditions were established long before High Mountain Oolong tea was grown. High Mountain Oolong tea is fermented, and it is a stronger tea.

Another round of tea is served. She watched me closely, and with her friendly smile, she points and encouraged me to smell the empty aroma cup again. She also points her nose into her tiny ceramic teacup and smiles knowingly as she looks up.

Ten Shang Tea Stories

I look down into my PinMing teacup, the light yellow tea in strong contrast to the clean white of the tiny ceramic teacup. I put my nose to the aroma cup again. More peach, more jasmine, more pears. The smell is like a summer perfume, warm summer days, fruity and floral notes.

The teas we are drinking are High Mountain Oolong tea, one of this tea masters’s favourite. I know this from the first visit. I have tasted High Mountain Oolong tea before, but this is the first time I have an excellent English explanation and guidance on how to enjoy every note in the tea. The taste is flavourful, light and full.

Mother and daughter page through the book and speak in Chinese. I try to listen for words that I might know. They page through the old tea books on the table and continue to share stories about family, family traditions whilst Megan translates. Megan talks about the advertisement again and her surprise when she discovered these old advertisements, and the design of the red teapot and how talented her uncle was with design. She is an art teacher, but as our conversation continues around the table with these tiny little teapots, I realized that she is also a tea master in her own right. Like her mom, she also had her first taste of tea when she was in her mom’s belly.

“Tea leaves, what a good idea for a design,” Megan says.

Mrs Chang says that there were six branches of Ten Shang Tea in Taipei.  All family-owned businesses. Each shop had its traditions and way of harvesting, making and presenting tea. The family concept was always natural tea and traditional tea ceremonies.

A Taiwanese tea master’s favourite

“Tea takes us back to the original setting of our bodies. Your body tells you what you need and what you should have.”

I asked about Mrs Chang’s favourite tea. She talks about her love for High Mountain Oolong tea. She said that it is concrete all around us in life; the tea area, where it is grown, is very pure; these teas are grown very high in the mountains. “Every season, the altitude and all the different conditions change the teas, so I think this is the most interesting about tea.”

In the earlier times, according to Mrs Chang, Li Shan, Li means pear in Chinese, the fruit, “earlier these teas were grown with pears and peach. They used to grow a lot of peach and pears. But on Li Shan Mountain, they grew pears; this has influenced the teas from Li Shan Mountain.”

You can smell the fruits in the tea, I say. And she laughs as they reference my name, Lizane, which sounds the same as Li Shan. Li Shan area was where they first developed teas.

A sensory experience

“When you are smelling the tea, you are in the forest. You smell flowers, and you smell fruit. It is like summer in your cup. This is a natural way,” she continued

I bring the aroma cup to my nose, the fruity fragrance of peach and pear takes me to the middle of a forest in Nanou. With my eyes closed, I realise that this master of teas was right. The tea this time is more robust, it is bitter when you take sips; it becomes so sweet when you swallow. It is a complete sensory experience, smells, and tastes that transport you to Taiwan’s most beautiful mountainous areas where they grow the finest teas.

The making of good quality tea

Megan says she was always curious and asking her parents when they visit the tea masters, “what are you doing, what are you making? How long will you wait for the tea.”  “And always I got the same answer: ‘it depends’, she laughs.  I asked to depend on what?”

“Then I realized it depends on the climate, the humidity, the weather and the temperatures of this year, and today’s sunlight and the temperature of the sunlight. Is it extreme, is it very mild? Is it soft, is it hard? It changes all the time. So this influences the products that you make.”

“Good quality tea depends on a lot of things,” said Mrs Chang.

“Mr Chang put a lot of effort into learning about tea, he studied electronic engineering, but after he received a cup of tea from a family member, he realized the value of tea. He had a sensitive stomach, and he was told that he couldn’t drink jasmine tea or green tea; it was too strong for his stomach, so he had to drink stronger fermented tea. And he realized that this was a good thing, and instead of taking medicine, he drank tea,” Mrs Chang recalls, as she tells the story of their tea history and how her husband fell in love with tea.

Mrs Chang smiled broadly, and we laugh, her face warm and friendly. There are hardly any wrinkles on her face, hardly any storylines that I would associate with a woman her age. Megan points at her mom, sitting attentively and listening to her daughter translating the stories. “The real reason my dad fell in love with tea, of course, is my mom.” We all laugh. “That was just an excuse.” Mr Chang realised early in his life that there were more tea benefits. He wanted to create a business but also take care of his health.

“I am happy my dad is not selling wine or something like that. I can’t have wine every day,” Megan says as they laugh. “When I get home, I can have a cup of tea with my family, with my mom and dad.”

A family of Taiwanese tea masters

When I walked into Ten Shang’s teashop for the first time about two weeks ago, I was met with the most radiant smile. A warm, friendly face greeted me and pointed me to a table. The warmth of that first meeting is accentuated with this tea experience today. Mrs Chang’s eyes were sparkling white, and I noticed a perfect posture, and her movements were graceful. She was so welcoming that first day. Today she feels like family.

For my western mind, this experience is another universe, I thought. I know so little.

“Even though I was drinking tea in my mother’s belly 30 years ago and still drink tea, I still feel I know so little about tea.” I am amazed at Megan’s knowledge about tea, and I know that I am sitting at a table with traditional tea masters. Mrs Chang has imparted her knowledge to her daughter, who translates all the family stories about tea in perfect English.

Who Megan is today is a product of how she was brought up, having a mom and dad that loves nature and tea so much that they build their lives on the tastes and smells in tiny teapots and teacups.

I share stories of Red Bush tea (Rooibos tea) and tea in South Africa.

Mrs Chang did not study tea. She had primary education in School. She said that you could not research tea back in the old days, but her other daughter, Megan’s sister, Pi Yuan Shieh, studied to be a tea master. “After her bachelor’s degree, she decided to go the academic route. Yuan Shieh was raised in the tea tradition, but she wanted to know more” she went from traditional education to books. As a student she went to a tea organisation, a government organization for tea planting and growing. She studied, and she got the license of the tea master. She is a tea-tasting master. And according to Mrs Chang, Taiwan wants to spread the knowledge and magic of tea internationally.

Tea for days

Mrs Chang brewed a new tea in her tiny orange ceramic teapot. I stopped counting how many cups I had. Instead, I put the aroma cup to my nose. The tea is darker, a deeper gold and more fruity, more earthy.

The Taiwanese drink so many different kinds of tea. I asked Mrs Chang what she thinks about bubble tea. Megan laughs as she translates the questions, “she thinks it is an interesting creation, but it is not the roots of tea. It is not tea. It can be a snack or dessert. She said that if you put milk in the tea, it is not good for your health.” We all laugh and take sips of tea.

I was curious; this is my second visit to the teashop. I was wondering how many cups of tea Mrs Chang drinks a day. Megan answers for her mom: “Countless.”

They laugh as Mrs Chang declares that just after she opens her eyes in the mornings, she will have her first cup of tea, and then she will have tea till ten in the evening. So her days are long, tea days.

I looked over at Mrs Chang and noticed her youthful complexion. I can’t think how old she is. Megan’s said her mom was 56.  For 56, she sure looks good. I take a sip of my tea and thought her youthfulness and radiant complexion must be because of the countless cups of tea she drinks every day.

“She says that she is drinking over a hundred cups a day. She drinks tea for almost 12 hours every day. Welcoming people into the teashop and sharing her knowledge,” Megan translates with a smile.

I looked at Mrs Chang and declared that I know the secret of her youthful looks; it is tea. She laughs, and the thin brown frame of her glasses on her nose moves up. Her teeth are white and shines when she smiles.

Tea and health

Mrs Chang says that tea is perfect for your health. In tea there is a little tea oil, that is very good for your body, it protects. Sometimes sensitive skin too can be healed with tea. “If your feet are smelling bad, you can put tea dust, hot water and salt on your feet, and that will help get rid of the bad smell. It will heal your feet.”

“If you have allergies, it can help too, by rubbing the tea on your skin.”

In the old day’s when they got hurt she recalls, they did not have alcohol, ointments and stuff, so they used tea when it cooled and rubbed it on their skins. “It wasn’t easy to get doctors back in those days. So to clean the wounds, we used tea; even if we didn’t have any medicine, tea healed the wounds.”

Taipei, Taiwan. Mrs Chang Wen-Hsin, owner and tea master at Ten Shang’s Tea Co in Taipei, serving High Mountain Oolong Tea in a traditional GongFu tea ceremony. Photo Lizane Louw

“Tea can be used as medicine, ointments and medication.”

“The elders did not teach them much, but, when she thinks back now, they taught them all about life.”

This is actual tea knowledge, practical application, storytelling, memory, and cultural experience.

“The utilization of tea is countless; the tannins in the tea help a lot to renew the cells in the body, it is not medicine, but it helps with healing.”

The Gongfu Cha ritual

The ritual she performs as we sit and share our stories is the Gongfu tea ceremony. And she explains the brewing ritual in detail and explains the utensils placed meticulously in front of her. She starts by explaining how to brew tea in the tiny teapot; she speaks about balancing the tea in the balance and sharing cup, the importance of the aroma cup, and then your cup for drinking. The whole set is called PingMing. It is such fine ceramics, straightforward and earthy designs; its minimalist. The tea utensils do not take away from the entire experience, I thought. On the contrary, it complements it; the focus is on the tea, not on the utensils.

“Ming is another word for tea; you use this word if you elegantly speak of tea,” she explains.

Gongfu is like Chinese style Kung Fu, the martial arts. This is an old tradition. She points at the tea table and explains that this is the tea table, and in earlier times, they used a tea ship. She points to a brown ceramic bowl. And there was no smell or aroma cup. The ritualistic ceremony she had been doing the whole morning, whilst sharing stories and sipping tea out of tiny teacups, is an adaptation, Taiwanese style GongFu. The aroma cup is a traditional Taiwanese way of drinking tea.

“They call this ceremony the Gongfu tea way. It is as much the ritual as it is creating the right atmosphere for drinking tea.” There are traditional ways connected to conventional stories. “Brewing tea means experience; this is the Gongfu.” Mrs Chang explains.

Show me your Gongfu

“Sometimes in the old days, a customer would walk in, sit down and say to the tea master, “show me your Gongfu” show me your way of brewing tea”, the tea master continues.  Every tea master has a different way of making tea, and every tea ritual is other, and this is the art of the Gongfu ritual.” This struck me. This tea master is showing me her Gongfu.

The practice of making tea, the secret steps, the balanced way is your Gongfu as a tea master.

You have to be familiar with a tea master to walk into the shop and say, “show me your Gongfu”, Mrs Chang says and laughs aloud.

The Gongfu ceremony is storytelling Mrs Chang says. Stories about generals and war and how the general is serving tea to his soldiers. “It is based on storytelling whilst drinking tea; there is also a special way of serving the tea whilst telling stories.”

This is Gongfu style. True Gongfu. Proper tea, proper ceramics, exciting stories.

What tea to drink, the Gongfu tradition

“People ask why we use tiny pots and tiny cups; it is for tasting, it is not for drinking. This is tasting. Like wine tasting, you are not drinking wine; you taste,” Megan translates.

“Your body is more sensitive to taste if you do it like this. This is the traditional way.”

“Tasting tea is like telling stories; while you are researching tea and writing about tea, in the end, you will find that you are writing your own story; that is what attracts people to drinking tea,” her moms says.

Mrs Chang suggests that I start from the middle, drink middle-quality tea, drink lower quality tea and higher quality tea, and not just focus on one type of tea. “Remember to trust your tongue and your body; your body will tell you what you need and what is good for you. Your body has a preference. This will come from your body. Your body will be sensitive.”

The first tea we had was the 35-per cent fermented tea. That is the High Mountain Oolong tea. Mrs Chang’s favourite. I decided to buy some of this tea. It comes with a hefty price tag.

My introduction to High Mountain Oolong tea

I am a special guest, the master of teas says, and because this is not my first time drinking tea with her, she decided to introduce me to this tea. “This kind of tea, we don’t introduce this kind of tea to people who visit for the first time. This is a new style. If you want to know more about tea and learn more about tea, we will introduce you to more advanced teas.”

“When you are young, you drink light fermentation; then, you can drink higher fermentation when you are older.”

“And then you can know the differences in tea, practice to have your style, find your best taste, find your way of presentation and own way of brewing.”

“Tea is my life; for me, it is just like breathing,” she says as I take my last sip.

“Tea connects her to her life, when she was born, when she was a child, when she got married and when she had her children. So she is very proud that this shop, such a small little tea shop, is so popular and that so many people around the world would come to visit such a tiny little teashop,” Megan summarised her mom’s words as the tea master, Mrs Chang, looks at both of us and smiled.

“Every time we share knowledge and our passion for tea, people always have unique experiences. In Chinese, we say, use the tea to make friends and meet again.”

“People feel home here; whenever they don’t know where to go, they can visit our teashop,” Mrs Chang says.

Taipei, Taiwan. Mrs Chang Wen-Hsin, owner and tea master at Ten Shang’s Tea Co in Taipei, serving High Mountain Oolong Tea in a traditional GongFu tea ceremony. Photo Lizane Louw

On an A3 calligraphy artwork against the back wall, behind the small orange and black ceramic teapot exhibit, is some Chinese writing next to a big orange stone Buddha. I asked Mrs Chang about this, and she says it is the Tao of Tea. At that moment, I realised that I am in the presence of a real master. A master that is not only teaching me about tea and a whole universe in my teacup, but she is also teaching me a way of living, a way of breathing and existing—my new tool of discovery, tea.

The Tao of Tea

How you drink tea shows how you treat people. Serving tea also shows how you treat people. The tea philosophy is based on how you treat people and, in the end, yourself.  Always leave space for yourself. A full cup of tea is not good.  Serve 70 per cent and leave a 30 per cent space. “

“He who knows where to stop…. It is a measurement of life. While you are working, your relationships this is balance. The word and philosophy explained in Chinese means the unit of measurement.”

Today, again, at the bottom of this tiny ceramic teacup, I learned so many things. I was sitting in the presence of a true tea master. I learned a cup is life, a cup is full of stories, a cup is a universe of knowledge. This philosophy of tea is connected to this ancient Chinese Tao philosophy.

This is the teaching, the Tao of Tea.

Want to know more?

You can read more about my tea adventures and how I got into writing about tea, The Tea Diaries.

For those who are curious about this ancient tea ritual, here is a video by Slice. A Traditional Gōng Fu Chá 功夫茶 ceremony Led by Master Wing Chi Ip | SLICE

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